Ung thư dạ dày – Stomatch cancer

 
  The muscles and juices of the stomach help digest food into a liquid from which nutrients can be absorbed lower in the bowel. Cô vaø dòch tieâu hoaù giuùp chuyeån hoaù thöùc aên sang daïng loûng vaø chaát dinh döôõng ñöôïc haáp thu vaøo thaønh ruoät.ï

Unfortunately, some of the symptoms of stomach cancer can be confused with many common stomach complaints, such as indigestion or heartburn. Ñieàu ñaùng noùi laø moät vaøi trieäu chöùng cuûa beänh ung thö daï daøy deã bò nhaàm laãn vôùi caùc beänh daï daøy khaùc nhö chöùng khoù tieâu hay ôï noùng.

We now know that treating this type of cancer involves fairly major surgery and other sorts of treatment such as chemotherapy or radiotherapy
Professor David Cunningham, Royal Marsden HospitalLearn more about survival rates for this cancer

However, being alert to changes in stomach and bowel symptoms, and consulting doctors about persistent problems could lead to far earlier detection. Tuy nhieân, caûnh giaùc vôùi moät vaøi thay ñoåi trong daï daøy, thaønh ruoät vaø tö vaán baùc só nhöõng trieäu chöùng dai giaúng cuûa daï daøy coù theå giuùp phaùt hieän sôùm.   

Professor David Cunningham, an expert in stomach cancer from the Royal Marsden Hospital in London, said: “Anyone experiencing significant indigestion or heartburn for the first time, over the age of 50 should certainly be seen by their GP.” Giaùo sö David Cunningham, moät chuyeân gia veà ung thö daï daøy cuûa beänh vieän Royal Marsden Loân ñoân noùi raèng “baát cöù ngöôøi naøo treân 50 tuoåi maø coù daáu hieäu khoù tieâu vaø ôï noùng trong laàn ñaàu tieân thì chaéc chaén ñöôïc tìm thaáy GP cuûa hoï”

“We now know that treating this type of cancer involves fairly major surgery and other sorts of treatment such as chemotherapy or radiotherapy.”

“Chuùng ta bieát raèng ñieàu trò loaïi ung thö naøy chæ phaåu thuaät vaø caùc bieän phaùp ñieàu trò khaùc nhö xaï trò hay hoaù trò”

 Symptoms/ Trieäu chöùng There are number of symptoms which a stomach cancer might cause. Coù raát nhieàu trieäu chöùng coù theå lieân quan ñeán ung thö daï daøy.These include:/ Bao goàm:·                            Nausea and vomiting (including vomit which contains blood) ·                            Blood in the stool (faeces) ·                            Indigestion or heartburn ·                            Weakness or fatigue ·                            Loss of appetite, or stomach bloating1/ Buoàn noân vaø noân (bao goàm noân ra maùu)2/ Ñi caàu ra maùu3/ Khoù tieâu hay ôï noùng4/ Meät moõi5/ Chaùn aên hay chöôùng buïng

Of course, these symptoms, including which produce blood, could be caused by a stomach ulcer, and a simple virus could produce many of the others. Dó nhieân, nhöõng trieäu chöùng naøy bao goàm keøm theo maùu coù theå xaûy ra do khoái u daï daøy vaø moät loaïi vi ruùt naøo ñoù coù theå gaây ra caùc trieäu chöùng khaùc.

There are tests available which can help detect or rule out stomach cancer. Coù nhieàu caùch ñeå phaùt hieän hoaëc loaïi boû ung thö daï daøy.

The faecal occult blood test checks for the presence of blood in the stool. It can be carried out at home or at a GP surgery. A small amount of faeces is placed on a slide. Kieåm tra maùu trong phaân ñeå phaùt hieän söï coù maët cuûa maùu trong phaân coù theå ñöôïc tieán haønh ôû nhaø hoaëc taïi nôi phaåu thuaät. Moät maãu phaân nhoû ñöôïc ñöa vaøo kính hieån vi ñeå kieåm tra.

This does not confirm cancer, however, and if suspicions are strong, a gastroenterologist may decide to carry out further tests. Tuy nhieân, caùch naøy cuõng chöa chaéc ñaõ xaùc ñònh ñöôïc ung thö vaø neáu coøn nghi ngôø thì caùc nhaø nghieân cöùu daï daøy coù theå quyeát ñònh caùc phaàn kieåm tra khaùc.

These include x-rays of the throat and stomach, normally involving a “barium meal” in which the patient swallows a solution containing a dye which shows up on x-rays. Caùc phaàn kieåm tra bao goàm chieáu tia X vaøo hoïng vaø daï daøy, thoâng thöôøng laø moät “böõa aên chaát bari” cho beänh nhaân nuoát vaøo nhö laø moät loaïi thuoác thöû khi chieáu tia X.

This will highlight any abnormal bumps and lumps in the digestive tract which could be tumours. Noù seõ phaûn chieáu taát caû caùc choã söng khoâng bình thöôøng vaø khoái u trong daï daøy maø coù theå laø khoái ung thö.

Finally, the doctor may carry out endoscopy, in which a probe with a camera on the end is passed down the throat so the doctor can view the interior of the stomach. Cuoái cuøng, baùc só coù theå tieán haønh noäi soi trong ñoù chæ moät caùi que coù gaén moät camera ôû ñaàu cuoái ñöôïc ñöa vaøo daï daøy töø cuoán hoïng nhôø ñoù maø baùc só coù theå nhìn thaáy ñöôïc beân trong daï daøy.  

The probe can also remove tissue samples for closer analysis. Que noäi soi coøn coù theå laáy moâ maãu ñeå phaân tích kyõ hôn.

Most patients find the idea of passing a tube down their throats while conscious worrying, due to the natural gagging reflex. Haàu heát beänh nhaân ñeàu caûm giaùc khi ñöa oâng luoàn vaøo hoïng khi caûm giaùc lo laéng vì phaûn xaï töï nhieân.  

However, normally either anaesthetic is sprayed on the throat, or the patient is sedated to lessen the discomfort.

Tuy nhieân, thoâng thöôøng thuoác gaây teâ ñöôïc phun leân hoïng hoaëc beänh nhaân seõ ñöôïc duøng thuoác an thaàn ñeå laøm giaûm caùc caûm giaùc khoù chòu.

 Causes/ Nguyeân nhaân.Stomach cancers is another which doctors think may be linked to an infection – but they do know it cannot be “caught” from another person. Ung thö daï daøy laø moät loaïi beänh khaùc maø baùc só cho raèng noù coù lieân quan ñeán moät söï nhieãm truøng – nhöng hoï khoâng bieát noù coù laây töø ngöôøi khaùc hay khoâng.

The bacteria is called Helicobacter pylori or H. pylori, which is also thought to be the cause of some stomach ulcers. Loaïi vi khuaån ñoù goïi laø Helicobacter pylori hay goïi taét laø H.pylori vaø cuõng ñöôïc cho laø gaây ra caùc loaïi u daï daøy khaùc.

However, simply having H.pylori does not appear to increase the risk of getting cancer. Tuy nhieân, H.pylori khoâng xuaát hieän ñeå laøm taêng khaû naêng ung thö.

Stomach cancer may also be linked to poor diet, particularly those which contain a lot of salty foods. Ung thö daï daøy cuõng coù theå lieân quan ñeán cheá ñoä aên kieâng, cuï theå do aên nhieàu muoái.

High levels of stomach cancers in Japan have been linked to the consumption of salted meat.Tæ leä ung thö daï daøy ôû Nhaät baûn coù lieân quan ñeán thöùc aên nhieàu muoái.

The disease mainly affects people above their mid 50s, and is more common in men. Beänh naøy aûnh höôûng chính ñeán nhöõng ngöôi treân 50 tuoåi vaø ôû nam giôùi nhieàu hôn.

People who have had certain illnesses such as pernicious anaemia – a shortage of red blood cells, seem to be at higher risk of developing stomach cancer. Nhöõng ngöôøi coù tieàn söû bò beänh thieáu maùu aùc tính – thieáu hoàng caàu trong maùu thuoäc nhoùm coù nguy cô bò beänh ung daï giaøy nhaát.

And smoking is also thought to increase the chances of cancer. Vaø huùt thuoác laù cuõng laøm taêng khaû naêng bò beänh.

A relatively high intake of vitamin C may provide some protection against stomach cancer.

Nhöõng loaïi thöïc phaåm giaøu vitamin C coù theå cung caáp nhöõng chaát choáng laïi beänh ung thö daï giaøy.

 Treatments/ Caùc bieän phaùp ñieàu tròTreatment depends how far the cancer has spread. Phöông phaùp ñeàu trò phuï thuoäc vaøo söï phaùt trieån cuûa teá baøo ung thö.

Very often, surgery is the first option for patients with stomach cancer. Thoâng thöôøng, phaåu thuaät laø söï löïa choïn ñaàu tieân khi chöõa trò beänh ung thö daï giaøy.

The operation is called gastrectomy, and involve either the partial or total removal of the organ. Phaåu thuaät thöôøng goïi laø thuû thuaät caét boû daï giaøy vaø bao goàm moät phaàn hoaëc toaøn boä caùc boä phaän bò beänh.

Sometimes chemotherapy is given before the operation to shrink the tumour and make it easier to remove, although there is no clear evidence that giving it before surgery improves the final result. Thænh thoaûng phöông phaùp xaï trò ñöôïc söû duïng tröôùc khi giaûi phaåu ñeå laøm thu heïp söï phaùt trieån cuûa teá baøo beänh taïo thuaän lôïi khi phaåu thuaät, maëc duø chöa coù baèng chöùng naøo roõ raèng aùp duïng phöông phaùp naøy tröôùc giaûi phaåu seõ cho keát quaû khaû quan hôn.

A total gastrectomy means that the throat, or oesophagus is connected straight to the next part of the digestive tract, the duodenum. Moät bieän phaùp caét boû daï daøy coù nghóa laø cuoán hoïng hoaëc thöïc quaûn ñöôïc noái tröïc tieáp vôùi oáng tieâu hoùa, taù traøng.

This is a major operation which not only requires recovery time, but has pronounced effects on the lifestyle of the patient. Bieän phaùp phaåu thuaät chính naøy khoâng chæ ñoøi hoûi phaûi coù thôøi gian hoài phuïc maø coøn aûnh höôûng roõ reät ñeán cuoäc soáng thöôøng nhaät cuûa beänh nhaân.

Patients may have short term or long term inability to deal with certain types of food, and could need vitamin injections to replace those which would normally be absorbed by the stomach. Beänh nhaân coù theå caàn moät thôøi gian ngaén hoaëc daøi khoâng theå tieáp xuùc vôùi moät vaøi loaïi thöïc phaåm naøo ñoù vaø coù theå caàn vitamin caáy tröïc tieáp vaø cô theå ñeå thay theá nhöõng loaïi vi chaát maø daï daøy khoâng haáp thuï ñöôïc. 

Very often the patient will have to eat little and often, as opposed to big meals, to prevent too much food reaching the the duodenum too quickly, which can cause pain and nausea. Ngöôøi beänh seõ phaûi aên ít trong thôøi gian daøi vaø khoâng neân aên quaù nhieàu ñeå haïn cheá thöùc aên ñöôïc ñöa xuoáng taù traøng quaù nhanh taïo ra nhöõng côn ñau vaø buoàn noân.

Professor Cunningham said: “The patient may feel they can’t eat as large meals as in the past and the recommendation is to eat small meals regularly to maintain the nutritional content.” Giaùo sö Cunnunghan noùi “beänh nhaân caûm thaáy hoï khoâng theå aên nhieàu nhö tröôùc ñaây vaø ñöôïc khuyeán caùo aên ít, aên trong nhieàu laàn ñeå duy trì thaønh phaàn dinh döôõng”.

If the tumour has been completely removed, and there is no evidence of cancer remaining, the operation may be the only treatment. Neáu teá baøo ung thö ñöôïc caét boû hoaøn toaøn vaø khoâng coù baèng chöùng veà söï toàn taïi cuûa chuùng thì chæ caàn söû duïng moät bieän phaùp phaåu thuaät laø ñuû.

But cancer can spread along with fluids which pass through the lymphatic system, and a surgeon will remove parts of that system near the stomach to check whether this has happened. Nhöng neáu teá baøo ung thö lan theo chaát loûng qua heä thoáng baïch tuyeát khi ñoù giaûi phaåu chæ coù theå caét boû nhöõng phaàn cuûa heä thoáng nhieãm beänh gaàn daï daøy ñeå kieåm tra lieäu ñaõ di caên chöa.

If this is the case. more chemotherapy or radiotherapy may well be recommended. Neáu tröôøng hôïp naøy xaûy ra thì nhieàu bieän phaùp xaï trò vaø hoùa trò ñöôïc khuyeán khích aùp duïng.

Recent progress in drug treatment has been made with a drug blocking a chemical produced by tumour cells which allows them to spread and invade neighbouring cells. Nhöõng tieán boä trong phöông phaùp dieàu trò baèng thuoác trong thôøi gian gaàn ñaây ñöôïc thöïc hieän baèng moät hoùa chaát xaâm nhaäp vaøo teá baøo beänh ñeå chuùng lan ra vaø xaâp nhaäp vaøo caùc teá baøo beänh laân can.

This slows the progress of the cancer. Tieán boä naøy ñaõ laøm chaäm laïi söï phaùt trieån cuûa beänh.

   

 (Theo BBCnews.com)

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