Ung thư phổi – Lung cancer

Lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in the world. In the UK, it is the second most-frequently occurring cancer, accounting for 1 in 7 new cases. Ung thö phoåi laø loaïi ung thö ñöôïc chaån ñoaùn thoâng thöôøng nhaát treân theá giôùi. Taïi Anh, ñaây laø loaïi ung thö ñöôïc xeáp thaøng thöù hai, cöù baûy ca ung thö môùi ñöôïc phaùt hieän thæ coù moät ca ung thö phoåi.

Nine in ten of these can be squarely blamed on the pernicious effects of tobacco smoking – and unfortunately the majority of cases cannot be cured. Vaø neáu 10 ca ung thö phoåi môùi phaùt hieän thì coù 9 ngöôøi bò beänh do huùt thuoác laù, thaät khoâng may, phaàn lôùi nhöõng tröôøng hôïp naøy khoâng theå chöõa trò.

The risk of lung cancer increases with age. It is less common in people under 40. Söï nguy hieåm cuûa caên beänh naøy gia taêng theo tuoåi taùc, thoâng thöôøng noù ít xaûy ra vôùi ngöôøi döôùi 40 tuoåi.

We haven’t made a big impact on cure rates yet, but I do believe that that is simply a question of time
Professor Gordon McVie, Cancer Research UKLearn more about survival rates for this cancer

Recently, there has been a decrease in the incidence in men, but lung cancer is now rising in women in many countries – this is directly related to changing smoking habits. Gaàn ñaây taïi moät soá quoác gia, ung thö phoåi giaûm ôû nam giôùi nhöng laïi taêng trong giôùi nöõ, ñieàu naøy coù lieân quan tröïc tieáp tôùi vieäc thay ñoåi thoùi quen huùt thuoác.

Professor Gordon McVie, from Cancer Research UK, is an expert in lung cancer, and says that despite the current poor survival rates, optimism is higher than ever among researchers. Theo Giaùo sö Gordon McVie moät chuyeân gia nghieân cöùu ung thö phoåi, thuoäc Vieän nghieân cöùu ung thö Anh quoác noùi maëc duø tæ leä ngöôøi soáng thaáp nhöng toâi vaãn laïc quan hôn caùc nhaø nghieân cöùu khaùc.

He said: “I’ve have been working to research lung cancer treatment for the last 30 years, and there has never been a more optimistic time. Oâng noùi theâm: “Toâi ñaõ nghieân cöùu phöông phaùp ñieàu trò ung thö phoåi trong suoát 30 naêm qua vaø chöa bao giôø laïc quan hôn”

We haven’t made a big impact on cure rates yet, but I do believe that that is simply a question of time.” “Chuùng ta chöa taïo ra moät taùc ñoäng lôùn cho tæ leä chöõa khoûi nhöng toâi tin ñoù chæ ñôn giaûn laø vaán ñeà thôøi gian”

He said that women in Scotland and the north of England were now more likely to die of lung cancer than breast cancer. Theo oâng hieän nay phuï nöõ ôû Scotland vaø mieàn Nam nöôùc Anh phuï nöõ cheát vì ung thö phoåi cao hôn soá ngöôøi cheát vì ung thö vuù.Symptos/ Caùc trieäu chöùn

The key symptom of lung cancer is a persistent cough that gradually gets worse. Moät trieäu chöùng chuû yeáu cuûa beänh ung thö phoåi laø ho keùo daøi vaø ngaøy caøng naëng theâm.

Other symptoms include/ Caùc trieäu chöùng khaùc bao goàm:

  • shortness of breath/ Khoù thôû
  • drop in ability to exercise/ Suy giaûm vaän ñoäng  
  • persistent chest pain/ Ñau ngöïc keùo daøi
  • persistent cough or coughing up blood/ Ho keùo daøi hay ho ra maùu  
  • loss of appetite, weight loss and general fatigue/ Bieáng aên, giaûm caân, meät moûi   

At present there is no effective screening test for lung cancer/ Hieän nay chuïp phim khoâng theå tìm ra daáu hieäu cuûa ung thö phoåi.

If you are worried that you have lung cancer, your doctor may order a chest X-ray, which allows doctors to look out for shadowy areas on the lungs. Neáu lo laéng raèng baïn coù theå maéc ung thö phoåi baïn coù theå yeâu caàu baùc syõ chieáu tia X vaøo vuøng ngöïc vaø nhôø ñoù baùc syõ coù theå nhìn thaáy roõ caùc vuøng bò che khuaát cuûa phoåi.

Sometimes a more detailed series of x-rays, called a CT scan, is ordered/ Thænh thoaûng, baùc syõ coù theå baïn chuïp CT.

In many cases, this will be followed by a bronchoscopy or mediastinoscopy, which means that a thin flexible telescope is put down the airways of your lungs, after which a biopsy of any suspicious area is performed. Trong moät soá tröôøng hôïp seõ söû duïng bieän phaùp pheùp soi pheá quaûn nghóa laø ñöa kính soi vaøo caùc oáng daãn khí trong phoåi sau ñoù kieåm tra sinh tieát caùc khu vöïc nghi ngôø. Causes/ Nhöõng nguyeân nha

Most lung cancer cases are caused by smoking cigarettes. Haàu heát caùc ca bò ung thö phoåi coù nguyeân nhaân töø khoùi thuoác laù.

Even passive smoking can cause a problem, and the longer period over which the patient smokes, the higher the risks. Thaäm chí ngöôøi huùt thuoác thuï ñoäng cuõng coù nguy cô bò beänh, thôøi gian tieáp xuùc khoùi thuoác caøng daøi thì khaû naêng bò beänh caøng cao.

Breathing in other carcinogens in the workplace, for example asbestos, can also trigger cancer. Hít thôû caùc chaát gaây ung thö taïi nôi laøm vieäc nhö chaát amiang cuõng coù theå gaây ung thö.  

Some people seem to be genetically pre-disposed to developing lung cancer, and medical checks in smokers may in future look for these key genes to work out how likely lung cancer is. Moät soá ngöôøi ñang tìm ra nguyeân nhaân chung gaây ung thö phoåi, caùc kieåm tra y khoa ñoái vôùi nhöõng ngöôøi huùt thuoác trong töông lai coù theå tìm ra nhöõng gen gaây beänh ñeå xaùc ñònh ung thö phoåi nhö theá naøo.Treatments/ Caùc bieän phaùp ñieàu trò

Treatment depends on the type of lung cancer and the state or extent of the disease. Caùch ñieàu trò phuï thuoäc vaøo loaïi, tình traïnh vaø möùc ñoä phaùt trieån cuûa beänh.

There are two types of lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC). The names simply describe the type of cell found in the tumours.Coù hai loaïi ung thö phoåi, ung thö phoåi teá baøo lôùn (NSCLC) vaø ung thö teá baøo nhoû (SCLC), sôû dó coù söï phaân loaïi nhö vaäy laø do chæ döïa vaøo loaïi teá baøo tìm thaáy trong caùc khoái u.

In NSCLC, the tumour is often located in the outside part of the lung, away from the centre, and if it has not spread, it may be possible to remove it by surgery. Ñoái vôùi NSCLC, khoái u thöôøng naèm beân ngoaøi phoåi, xa trung taâm, vaø neáu noù khoâng lan roäng coù theå caét boû khi giaûi phaåu.

However, overall less than a fifth of all NSCLC patients are suitable for surgery. Tuy nhieân, khoaûng chöa tôùi 1/5 beänh nhaân bò ung thö loaïi NSCLC thích hôïp vôùi bieän phaùp phaåu thuaät.

Chemotherapy and radiotherapy will also be considered in many cases. Phöông phaùp hoùa trò vaø xaï trò cuõng ñöôïc aùp duïng trong moät soá tröôøng hôïp.

Unfortunately, NSCLC is hard to cure, and in many cases, the treatment given will be to prolong life as far as possible – and relieve symptoms. Ñaùng tieác loaïi NSCLC ñieàu trò raát kho, trong nhieàu tröôøng hôïp bieän phaùp chöõa trò keùo daøi caû ñôøi coøn laïi vaø chæ laøm dòu bôùt trieäu chöùng thoâi.

SCLC is different from NSCLC. In particular, it has a tendency to spread to distant parts of the body at a relatively early stage. Loaïi SCLC khaùc so vôùi NSCLC. Cuï theå, noù coù khuynh höôùng lan roäng ñeán caùc boä phaän xa hôn trong cô theå vaøo thôøi ñieåm môùi phaùt sinh.

As a result, small-cell lung cancers are generally less likely to be cured by surgery. Do vaäy, caùc teá baøo ung thö phoåi nhoû raát kho ñieàu trò baèng bieän phaùp phaåu thuaät.

Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are used as well. Trong tröôøng hôïp naøy bieän phaùp xaï trò vaø hoùa trò ñöôïc chæ ñònh.

(Theo bbcnews.com)

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